I’ve put together a snapshot of many of the Christological heresies that the Christian Church had to contend with in the first several centuries of its existence. Although other heresies are not mentioned (e.g., Sabellianism, Montanism), this matrix captures errant beliefs on the person and nature of Jesus Christ and the orthodox responses. First, what is denied in the heresy, then what is affirmed in orthodoxy.
*It is historically significant that Chalcedon did not have the last word on Christology. The language of Chalcedon spawned new debates and eventually provided the conceptual framework for John of Damascus centuries later to articulate how variety and unity can characterize the same divine reality. He helpfully employs the expression perichoresis to illustrate how things brought together in union could nevertheless remain distinct, as in partners “dancing around” together. Rather than being mingled together as in a container of barley and wheat, or being fused together like a drop of wine in a glass of water, each nature mutually indwells the other while preserving its own distinct properties. Perichoresis or “interpenetration” is that summary expression used by John of Damascus (circa 675-749 CE) to show how the two distinct natures mutually indwell the one Person while simultaneously “acting conjointly with each nature doing in communion with the other that which is proper to itself.” For more on perichoresis, see my post here.
All Christians can confidently affirm with Chalcedon that our Lord Jesus Christ is
“at once complete in Godhead and complete in manhood … of one substance [homoousious] with the Father … and at the same time of one substance [homoousious] with us as regards his manhood …without confusion, without change, without division, without separation; the distinction of natures being in no way annulled by the union, but rather the characteristics of each nature being preserved and coming together to form one person [prosopon] and subsistence [hypostasis], not as parted or separated into two persons [prosopa], but one and the same Son and Only-begotten God the Word, Lord Jesus Christ.”
See also my The Christology of Chalcedon.